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langandterry asked If a person is standing in a flooded area and there is a downed power line in that water.?
How far away from that live power line can a person be and be safe from electrocution if both are in that same water. I'm thinking of any hurricane situation in which power poles are knocked down. If a line is in foot high water and a person walks close to that live power line, when will he be shocked or worse? What's the range of electricity in water? Does it depend on the amount of power? Would he feel any kind of tingly sensation as he got closer? Just wondering.
And got the following answer:
The answer is that you can not predict within a safe margin, where the fault current will flow in this condition. First I have to make a couple of assumptions: 1- The power line did not trip out of service. While this is highly unlikely, it is possible under the right conditions. 2- The amount of fault current flowing is not high enough to cause back-up protection schemes to operate. So how far away do you have to be? Well current flowing through your body only has to reach 25 micro-amps per square centimeter across the surface area of your heart to cause it to go into fibrillation. In this condition you will not survive. To achieve this condition you need to have enough voltage difference between your two feet such that it will force a current flow up one leg and down the other. If we assume that the current flowing out of the line and into the water follows a straight line and that you are walking parallel to that current flow, then the impedance or resistance of the water/ground the current is flowing will cause a voltage differential to develop over each foot of distance the current flows. So, lets say the current flow is about 400 amps. Many primary relaying systems at my utility's circuit breakers are set to this level or higher. So the current is flowing in the water and ground and if we assume the resistance is about 0.5 ohms per foot then the voltage per foot would be: 0.5*400 = 240 volts. If your stride length is about two feet then you would have as much as 480 volts between your one foot and the other. This "Step Potential" is what will drive current through your body. If we assume dry skin at about 100,000 ohms, the current through your body would be: 480volts/100,000 ohms = 0.005 amps. You will feel this and it may lock you muscles into place. now since you are walking into water, I will assume you feet and skin are wet. We will assume it is closer to about 500 ohms. Now lets include the body's internal resistance of about 300 to 1000 ohms. We'll use 300 ohms. Total resistance is 800 ohms. Current through your body 480 volts / 800 ohms = 0.6 amps. This will in all likelihood kill you. Will you feel a tingly sensation? Not necessarily, it would depend on how you approached the current flowing in the water and ground. Your next step may be the one that kills you. So, how close can you come. The answer is STAY AS FAR AWAY AS HUMANLY POSSIBLE if you are not qualified to make the correct judgment as to the safety level you may have around a downed power conductor. Having said all this, the Utility company's have many various schemes to protect for conditions like this, however, they are not 100% foolproof. Don't be the fool that finds out. Sorry for the reaction, but I have moved to many dead bodies of people who thought they know what they were doing, including trained Utility personnel. Hope this helps, Newton1Law
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